Opening Statement.

Immigration Research West Australia (IRWA) would like to inform website visitors of the significant automatic employment rights that are provided to overseas students on there arrival in Australia. These student visas are :

1. The general Student visa (subclass 500), which covers different courses of study (i.e. undergraduate, vocational education training etc.) and;

2. The Temporary Graduate (subclass 485) visa applies to overseas students that recently graduated from an Australia education institution or recently graduated with a trade qualification or diploma.[1]

The subclass 500 visas allow overseas students employment (in any employment sector they choose) up to 20 hours per/week during study and unlimited hours during study break. This visa has a time frame of 5 years.

The subclass 485 visas have no such restrictions. The 485-visa holder can work as many hours as they prefer and work in any industry they choose, regardless of their study and qualifications. The time frames for 485 visas of which there are two streams range from minimum 18 months to maximum 4 years.[2]

As a result of the extraordinary working rights overseas students, their partners and families have on arrival to Australia. There is evidence beginning to reveal Australia’s large-scale Overseas Student Program is having negative impacts on Australia’s unemployed citizens (in particular youth unemployed age 15-24).

Therefore overseas students should be seen also as Temporary overseas workers. As is shown in this article they do indeed make up a significant proportion of  the current Australian workforce. Immigration Research WA will apply the more accurate term of overseas student/worker throughout the research work.

Putting Western Australian’s first in the job queue in 2017.

A central plank of the McGowan Government’s policy in 2017 was jobs, jobs and more jobs for Western Australia’s unemployed. It is worth reminding Website visitors of the policy statements made by the State Labor Premier and his Minister’s before and after the 2017 State election. During the State election campaign, the WA Labor Party promised to tear up the list of occupations that fast-tracked overseas worker to West Australia. [3]

In March 2017 the Western Australian Skilled Migration Occupation List (WASMOL) included 178 occupations such as engineers, bricklayers and nurses. The State Labor Premier marking the start of his campaign to put West Australian workers first in the job queue: “These workers could be sought from overseas despite WA’s soaring unemployment and, in many cases, local workers who are capable of carrying out the work”. [4]

By June 2017, Premier Mark McGowan had announced a new list reduced to 18 highly skilled WASMOL occupations in demand.[5] The McGowan Government also delivered its election commitment to remove Perth from the Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme (RSMS), paving the way for more jobs for Western Australians. A quote from the Premier: “Given the change in the State’s economic circumstances and with widespread unemployment, it is no longer suitable for Perth to be included in the RSMS”.[6] In June 2017 Western Australia’s trend unemployment rate was 5.6%.[7] Concerns about this unemployment rate prompted more public responses from the Premier:

“In the current economic climate, it’s more important than ever that we maximise employment opportunities for Western Australians”. “On day one in office, we ripped up the out-dated skilled migration list and delivered our commitment to keep WA jobs in WA”. And on the Premier went with the same theme:

“One of my first acts as Premier of Western Australia was to write to Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull to request that Perth be removed from the RSMS. This is an important election commitment that we’ve moved quickly to deliver”. “Our policy will ensure that, whenever possible, Western Australians will be given first preference on WA jobs. It doesn’t make sense to fast-track workers from overseas when there are unemployed Western Australians who are capable of doing the work”. “Our economy has changed dramatically since the height of the mining boom and we need to do everything we can to get Western Australians back to work.”[8]

One thing is clear from the statements above. The State Labor Government are in no doubt that immigration is having a negative impact on Western Australia’s unemployed.

Has the McGowan government improved the fortunes of the State’s unemployed since 2017?

By June 2019 the trend unemployment rate was 5.9% one of the highest unemployment rates in West Australia in the past 17 years (see Figure 1 below). In June 2017, a few months after the McGowan government where elected the trend unemployment rate was 5.6% (Figure 1)

In June 2019, they’re where nearly 85,000 West Australian’s looking for a job. The unemployment rate (original data) for age group 15-24 year old was even worse at 11.2 % (see Figure 2 below).[9] These figures do not make good reading for the State Labor government. What is their policy direction-moving forward? How do they aim to solve the State’s unemployment issues?

Figure 1: West Australia (trend) unemployment rate monthly, June 2002 to June 2019.
[visualizer id=”4071″]
(Source ABS, 2019.[10])

More immigration equates to more competition in Western Australia’s Labour market.

The State Labor government goal to have  88,000 overseas students erolled at Western Australia universities and vocational education training by 2022 has the potential to worsen the predicament of the 85,000 Western Australians out of work in June 2019? If the Labor Party predictions work out there will be a considerable increase in the number of overseas students/workers arriving in Western Australia over the next 2 years. And this has the potential to move into much higher figures, as student visas are uncapped and the main goal of overseas students studying in Australia is to gain a permanent visa and employment.[11] Will this not squeeze the West Australian Labor market even more than the current situation? According to the Productivity Commission Migration Intake Report their research suggest that the huge rise in overseas students in Australia may be impacting on Australia youth employment (see discussion in sections below).

In October 2018, Premier Mark McGowan and Education and Training Minister Sue Ellery launched the State’s StudyPerth plan to attract thousands of more international students to Western Australia – Where Bright Futures Begin: International Education in Perth, Western Australia 2018-2025.[12]

According to the State Government, overseas students help boost the economy, create jobs and enrich the WA community. In 2018 Western Australia had more than 50,000 overseas students enrolled in West Australia’s education sectors.[13] In May 2019 the McGowan government made the decision to invest an extra $4.5 million of taxpayers funds towards Study Perth’s International Education Action Plan, as part of the upcoming 2019-20 State Budget.[14] In total StudyPerth’s target are 32,000 visas and it could be more. This figure does not include the partners or families of overseas students, which also have equivalent visa timeframes and automatic working rights. What does this say about the many public statements made by the State Premier in 2017 about putting West Australians first in the queue for jobs? Yet on a regular basis West Australia media reports continue to reveal how hard West Australia’s local youth unemployed are feeling the pinch with intense competition for local work.[15] Undeterred by the potential impact the increase in long term overseas arrivals could have on youth unemployment, the State Premier speaks highly of his governments migration policy to attract thousands more overseas students to the State:

“Let’s remember there was no strategy to grow international student numbers or a plan to attract international students to WA when we came to office. My Government has been working hard to turn around the trends we inherited on international student numbers”.[16]

The Graduate Occupation Migration List fails to apply sound methods in assessing real skill shortages in WA.

One of the main attractions for overseas students to study in Perth is that the Graduate Occupation Migration list (GOML) offers overseas students/workers the prospect of permanent state nominated visas (subclass 190); or Skilled Regional visa (subclass 489) once there undergraduate studies are completed. There are 209 occupations in Western Australia for overseas students to apply for.

Immigration Research WA is concerned that the McGowan government have implemented a migration list, which ignores tried methods, applied to nominate skill shortages by occupation types in Western Australia. It was bewildering to hear Education and Training Minister Sue Ellery make such a claim in State parliament responding to a question from Independent Member of the Legislative Council Charles Smith. Ms Ellery’s response, “the Graduate Migration List does not indicate occupations from which there are shortages of West Australian workers”. [17] There is a link to this Parliamentary video in the reference list below.

In fact the State government have made public their GOML could make it even harder for West Australia’s unemployed to secure employment. On there Migration WA website: “State nomination applicants will have to compete with all potential employees in the Western Australian labour market to secure any available or advertised position”. [18] Is this a responsible migration policy considering the current state of the WA labour market?

There are a meagre 24 out of the 209 occupations in West Australia’s Graduate Migration List that are currently listed in the Federal government Short term Skilled Occupation List for State nominated visas (See Table 1 below).[19] This amounts to a mere 11% of the occupations on the Labor government’s GOML where there is a real skill shortage. In other words there is no demand in Western Australia for 185 positions on the GOML. Yet the aim of the State Labor government is to attract tens of thousands of overseas students to Western Australian to apply for permanent visas linked to occupations where there is zero demand.

Immigration Research WA was quick to praise the State Labor government when it shrunk the State’s WASMOL list and terminated the Regional Sponsored Migration Scheme for Greater Perth in 2017. It was a responsible and bold migration policy by the McGowan government. It is lamentable the McGowan government have undone there promising migration agenda of 2017. Who stands to gain from the State government’s misguided Graduate Migration policy?

 Table 1: A mere 24 out of the 209 occupations on West Australia’s Migration list that are categorised as short-term skill shortages.
(Source: Australian Government, 2019.[20]. Migration West Australia[21])

What is StudyPerth’s new role in State migration policy?

According to the McGowan Government their overseas graduate visa policy (promoted through StudyPerth) will be a boon for local employment and the State’s economy. The State government assume that StudyPerth marketing Perth’s lifestyle, education facilities and 209 visa-listed occupations to overseas students will generate about 15,500 jobs in the international education sector in Western Australia by 2022.[22]. This is a big number of new positions in the space of 3 years. Premier McGowan has made numerous employment predictions since elected back in 2017.

Given StudyPerth have been presented with a major role in shaping the State’s future Migration intake. Who are they and whom do they represent? StudyPerth is a registered association with its own secretariat it is supported by the State Government Department of Jobs, Science and Innovation.[23] There member institutions include the State’s six universities, plus vocational education providers, primary and secondary schools, and English language colleges – both from the public and private sectors.[24] The financial interest university institutions have in bringing in a much higher number of fee paying foreign students to Western Australia should not be underestimated. Research from the Australian Population and Research Institute (TAPRI) demonstrates that Australia universities have prioritised the recruitment of overseas students over domestic students because of the much higher fee revenue. For example, between 2012 and 2017, the share of commencing overseas students of all commencing students in Australia’s universities grew from 21.8 per cent to 28.9 per cent and to around 40 per cent in Group of Eight (Go8) universities.[25]

There is already a significant amount of funds flowing directly into the State’s universities given the number of overseas students currently studying in Western Australia. And StudyPerth will be the force behind the marketing of Western Australia’s education sectors and State nominated permanent visas. Nearly all Perth’s overseas students (95%) are enrolled in programs offered by one of StudyPerth’s members. StudyPerth will take primary responsibility for implementing the State Labor government’s Graduate migration strategy, Where bright futures begin: International Education in Perth, Western Australia 2018-2025. StudyPerth has established an ambitious goal to increase the number of international students choosing Perth as a study destination to 100,000 by 2025.[26]

Immigration Research WA is dismayed by the McGowan government’s decision to hand over partial responsibility for State migration (the marketing of Western Australia for overseas students/ temporary workers to study, live and work) to an organisation primarily driven by the financial interests of the education institutions they represent.

Overseas Student Migration Program continues to reveal rapid growth.

In their chronological account of Australia’s overseas student program, researchers from the Australian Parliamentary Library concluded, ”immigration policy over the past 17 years has fostered the development of a complex nexus between the overseas student program and the skilled migration program”[27]. The Parliamentary researcher’s added …”Growth in both the skilled migration program and overseas student program over the last two decades was seen by successive governments as instrumental in contributing to Australia’s economic growth”[28].

The shaping of Australia’s immigration policy promoting huge growth in overseas student arrivals shows no signs of altering course. By May 2019 there was 622,050 overseas students in Australia. [29] Amounting to a significant 12 % increase compared to May 2018.[30] For Australian universities, overseas student fees have been the largest source of revenue growth in recent years. Overseas student fees have grown as a proportion of total revenue, from 16.3 per cent in 2013 to 23.3 per cent in 2017 (latest year available).[31] During this period the proportion of Australian government financial assistance declined from 58.6% of total revenue in 2013 to 53.6 % in 2017.[32]

While Australian government funding continues to contract a trend towards greater reliance on increases in enrollment and overseas students fees has been pursued to bolster operating revenue. Clearly Higher Education Providers (HEPs) are under pressure to promote huge increases in overseas student enrollments. As of 2017 there where 7 Australian HEPs reported net operating deficits.[33] In this economic climate the main route to operating surplus is to continue push hard at capturing more of the overseas students/temp workers market. And this is the role StudyPerth have been given by the McGowan Labor government

The pursuit of bringing hundreds of thousands more overseas students to Australia is not solely the domain of the Federal government. Australian Universities have been handed the role of accepting thousand’s of overseas visa applications. Under the Simplified Student Visa Framework higher education providers have a role in confirming English language proficiency and assessing the financial capacity of students to live in Australia.[34] Depending on the higher education providers there is no requirement for any additional assessment of student visa applications by the Department of Home Affairs.[35]

While the Australian government continue to praise and promote the economic aspects of the Student Migration Program, less is said about the negative aspects of operating an uncapped overseas student visa program. The interaction between the overseas student program and general skilled migration has produced unintended and problematic outcomes: a concentration of overseas students in the vocational education sector in the pursuit of permanent residency; the failure of former overseas students to achieve employment outcomes that were commensurate with their qualifications; and failure to obtain skill levels that would meet Australia’s skill needs.[36]

By 2009 the Australia Student Migration Program was becoming porous: would-be migrants and educational institutions had realized there was an almost seamless pathway for international students to attain permanent residence if they enrolled in a course of study which would qualify them for an occupation featuring on the Migration Occupation Demand Lists (MODL).[37] The Australia government’s key response to this was through overseas student visas to be decoupled from other migration outcomes such as permanent residency. This reform worked student’s visas dropped by 16%.[38]

However the higher education sector where alarmed by the fall in overseas students. Pressuring the Government to carry out a strategic review (the Knight review) of the student visa program. [39]The outcome of the Knight review (released in 2011) was 41 detailed recommendations. Most of these have been implemented and the consequences of some of the recommendations have been assessed by The Australian Population Research Institute (TAPRI) see below

Overseas Students and Net Overseas Migration.

The key reform of the Student Migration Program recommended by the Knight review was to overhaul The Skilled Graduate 485 visa, previously limited to graduates with qualifications geared for the Skilled Migration Programme. Initially the visa qualified an additional 18 -month stay in Australia for overseas students to improve English skills or gain work experience in there profession.[40]

The renewed Temporary Graduate visa (485) replaced the older one with far more generous criteria. Allowing overseas students a minimum 2-year stay or longer depending on qualifications.[41] The use of this visa will be a big drawcard in Western Australian more so as all overseas students with additional coursework for example will have access to all the occupations on the State’s GOML. Not only that but holders of the revamped Temporary Graduate 485 visa have no restrictions on the type of work they can do. They may work or study in any field, regardless of their study and qualifications.[42] The Primary applicant, dependents and secondary applicants are also able to work and study on the Temporary Graduate visa. This could add greatly to the competition for local jobs with out of work West Australian’s?

The aim of the Knight review recommendations was to propel major growth in the refurbished 485 visas and it is going through a very high growth phase. There were (54,863 visas lodged) in 2017-18. This is an increase of 27.1 per cent compared to the previous year. Indian students increased their proportion of 485 visa grants by 44.4%. The 485 visas is being used by the McGowan government to entice overseas students to West Australia (to lengthen there stay for up to 4 years after undergraduate study which allows 5 years stay so that is 9 years in total). Overseas students require a 485 visa as key eligibility for a State nominated visa from the list of over 200 occupations on offer in Western Australia.

The TAPRI research uncovered a sharp rise in overseas students enrollments since 2011-12 as a direct result of implementing the Knight review recommendations.[43] In 2011-12 overseas students made up a small 11.1 % of NOM but by 2017-18 this had increased to 44.3% of NOM (see Table 2 below). The Table demonstrates that permanent visas accounted for only 66,548 of NOM in 2017/18, much less than the overseas students share of NOM at 104,987. Yet almost all the recent debate about the size of NOM and how it might be reduced has been on the net permanent migration component. But public concerns about migration stem from the scale and speed of migration. It follows that if there is to be any abatement to Australia’s very large NOM, overseas students have to a major part of the discussion and the solution.[44]

Note that Table 2 reveals that 66, 548 permanent visas where granted to overseas migrants in 2017/18. This is much less than the 162,417 permanent visas issued by the Australian government permanent migration program for 2017/18. The reason for the big gap between the NOM permanent visas in Table 2 and the number of visas issued is that around half these visas were provided to migrants already in Australia who were holding a temporary visa and thus are not classified as NOM arrivals.[45]

 Table 2: Net Overseas Migration Australia by visa category, 2011-12 and 2017-18

(Source: ABS 2019.[46])
Note: Reproduced from The Australian Population Research Institute.[47]

Western Australia.

The large rise in overseas students as a proportion of NOM for Australia, is also mirrored in Western Australia overseas students made up a minor 5.7% of NOM in 2011-12, increasing to a significant 40.8% of NOM in 2017/18 see Table 3 below. Higher education students jumped from an insignificant 2.4% of NOM in 2011/12 to 33.9% of NOM in 2017/18.

Table 3 also reveals that Western Australia is moving closer to its long-term average NOM of 16,400. The NOM figure of 50,810 in 2011/12 remains the highest on record in Western Australia and was partly due to the plethora of poorly targeted visas with extremely loose visa criteria created by previous Federal government immigration policies. One of these the Regional Sponsored Migration scheme (RSMS) has been assessed in previous Immigration Research WA Posts. The RSMS has undergone a significant number of refused applications over the past year due to integrity issues.

Table 3: Net Overseas Migration, Western Australia, financial years 2011-12 and 2017-18 (by visa type).
(Source: ABS 2019.[48])

Western Australia’s youth unemployment and immigration – are they related?

Turning now to unemployment and immigration. As is shown above in Figure 1- Western Australia has been unable to shake of the constant rise in unemployment since the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). In September 2008 general unemployment rate was a lowly 2.7% but in the space of 9 months (by June 2009) the rate had nearly doubled to 5.3% (Figure 1).

West Australia’s youth unemployment (15-24 age group see Figure 2 below) has faired much worse than general rates. Going back to the year of the GFC October 2008 it was 3.3 % and in 6 months had exploded to a rate of 10.3%. Immigration Research WA judges it very unfortunate this waste of home-grown talent. And thousands of WA’s youth have had to contend with the hopelessness of not getting into work after leaving high school – which should be an exciting time the beginning of there career development and making an income. By January 2019 the West Australia youth unemployment rate had reached an inexcusable 17.2%, thankfully this has dropped to 11.2 % by June 2019.

It is worth dwelling on Australia’s immigration policy settings for a moment, gone are the days when both major political parties operated a tight rein on selective migration with a more conservative approach to policy making. What happens now is a constant tinkering of immigration policy. The case of immigration policy changes during the 2008 GFC is a good example of this and as we can see below is still resonating with the constant high growth in student visa arrivals.

The 2008 the Global Financial Crisis triggered changes in immigration policy on skilled migration. In 2009 the skilled stream of Australia’s migration program was reduced for the first time in ten years and the objective was to protect local jobs.[49] However, in a remarkable move by the Australian Labor Party led by Kevin Rudd in 2008 overseas students where handed automatic working rights during their stay in Australia.

Ponder on those two policies for a moment. On the one hand the Rudd Labor government states the immigration reform was primarily to look after Australian workers and therefore cut the migration program. On the other hand the Rudd government gifted workings rights (20 hrs during study and unlimited on study breaks) to 324,000 overseas students commencing study in 2008. Not surprisingly this led to an increase in commencements of 24.8 % compared to the previous year.[50]

A critical question in all of this is why have consecutive West Australian governments been unable to address the ongoing rise in the State’s unemployment since 2008, in total 11 years? Is the rise in overseas students/workers and other temporary workers causing unforeseen difficulties for the inhabitant workforce? Should the State government at the very least commission research into the phenomenon of the States’ constant growth in unemployment since the GFC?

[visualizer id=”4068″]
(Source, ABS 2019. [51])

 What does the evidence say about unemployment and mass immigration?

It is unfortunate that the West Australian government have not followed up on there promise to look after West Australian’s domestic workforce before implementing a substantial increase in the State’s migration occupation list. Immigration Research WA is disappointed that the McGowan government has not commissioned research looking at immigration and unemployment. The Productivity Commission review into Australia’s Migration intake in 2016 provided evidence that there is a possible co-relationship between mass immigration and unemployment in different segments of Australia’s labour force. The Productivity Commission is an agency of the Australian Government, located within the Treasury portfolio. Its activities cover all levels of government.[52]

The McGowan government’s previous statements in 2017/18 recognised immigration was negatively affecting unemployment in West Australia. Given the State governments perceived urgency in dealing with the matter of immigration impacts on the State’s unemployed – why did the government not err on the side of caution through commissioning research before implementing a vastly expanded migration list. One option proposed by the Productivity Commission was for States to examine the effects of immigration on youth labour markets and use larger regions (such as states) over a short time period (reducing the likelihood of capturing interstate migration due to changes in labour market conditions).[53]

Importantly The Productivity Commission developed models, which showed significant correlations between immigration and unemployment. Finding local youth as potentially the most vulnerable group. The Commission cited international evidence suggesting that displacement of existing workers is most likely to occur when economic conditions are weak such as currently in Western Australia and where the immigrant labour supply is large (see Table 4 below Overseas students/workers in WA by new annual commencements). Those most exposed to these conditions are existing inhabitants with low skill levels aged 15-24 as their labour is more easily substituted for immigrant labour[54].

The Productivity Commission Migrant Intake report showed that Australia went from having the lowest youth unemployment rate in 2007 among English-speaking Organisation for Economic Development Countries (OECD). And then doubled from 7.6% in August 2008 (start of the GFC) to 14.5% in November 2014. This is reflected in Figure 2 above also showing West Australian youth going through the same high rates. Poor employment outcomes for any worker can result in scarring “where an individual loses skills, self confidence and social networks”.[55]

 Figure 3: Youth unemployment rate and employment to population ratio (1995-2014).

(Source: Productivity Commission, 2016.[56])
Note: Reproduced from the Productivity Commission Migration Intake report, 2016.

While we often hear that the huge overseas students/workers intake is great for the economy and Gross Domestic Product growth politicians say nothing about the fact that new overseas students constantly add to the stock of Australia’s youth labour and are taking up existing employment. Drawing from Productivity Commission modelling it is reasonable to assume that a significant percentage of the 622,000 overseas students currently in Australia –  are taking up a considerable proportion of vacant positions. The Migration Intake Report estimated:

1. Around 55% of overseas students visa holders where employed in September 2015;

2. About 57% of overseas students where aged 15-24 in September 2014 and;

3. In 2014-15 temporary entrants with working rights (overseas students, temporary graduates and working holiday makers) aged 15-24 years was estimated to be around 50% of the growth in Australia’s youth labor force.[57]

Table 4 below unveils the high number of overseas students/workers commencing studies in WA. In fact these numbers refer to new commencements and don’t provide the correct number of overseas students in Western Australia. The latest data from the Australian government revealed there where nearly 41,000 overseas students in West Australia 2018 and similar levels for 2017 and 2016. However, for the year to May 2019 Western Australia overseas students have increased over the same period in 2018 by 5%.[58] This is considerable as it is not at the half-year count yet there are nearly 36,000 students in Western Australia already studying, using local accommodation and gained local employment. This may be an early window into the McGowan government/StudyPerth’s GMOL strategy enticing overseas students to live, work and study in Western Australia with the ultimate goal of a State nominated permanent visa?

Table 4: Overseas students commencements and enrollments in Western Australia, calendar years, 2016 to 2018.

(Source: Australian Government.[59])
Notes: A commencement is a new student enrollment in a particular course at a particular institution. In contrast enrollments are counted differently because an overseas student could be attending two different courses in the same period (for example ELICOS English language and a Bachelor degree) therefore both enrollments of one student will be counted. Hence the higher number than the individual student commencements shown in Table 4.


[1] Australian Government Department of Home Affairs, ‘BR0097 Student Visa and TemporaryGraduate Visa Program Report at 31 December 2018’, 2018 <> [accessed 24 July 2019].

[2] Australian Government Department of Home Affairs, ‘BR0097 Student Visa and TemporaryGraduate Visa Program Report at 31 December 2018’.

[3] Government of West Australia, ‘Media Statements – McGowan Government Delivers Commitment to Prioritise WA Workers’, 2017 <> [accessed 2 June 2019].

[4] Government of West Australia.

[5] Government of West Australia.

[6] Government of West Australia.

[7] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Apr 2019’, 2019  <> [accessed 3 June 2019].

[8] Government of West Australia.

[9] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Jun 2019’, 2019, p. 0 <> [accessed 20 July 2019].

[10] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Jun 2019’.

[11] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, The Value of International Education to Australia, 2015 <> [accessed 13 November 2018].

[12] Government of Western Australia, ‘Media Statements – Landmark Strategy Launches New Era for International Education in Western Australia’, 2018 <> [accessed 2 June 2019].

[13] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘Data and Research’, 2019 <> [accessed 9 June 2019].

[14] Government of Western Australia, ‘Media Statements – State Budget Boost to Secure More International Students to Perth’, 2019 <> [accessed 2 June 2019].

[15] Josh Zimmerman, ‘No Jobs for Country Kids in “the Big Smoke”’, The West Australian, 2019 <> [accessed 8 July 2019].

[16] Government of Western Australia, ‘Media Statements – State Budget Boost to Secure More International Students to Perth’.

[17] Charles Smith MLC, Skilled Migration Farce, 2018 <> [accessed 10 June 2019].

[18] Migration Western Australia, ‘Migration WA – Occupation Lists’, 2018 <> [accessed 23 December 2018].

[19] Australian Government, ‘Migration (LIN 19/051: Specification of Occupations and Assessing Authorities) Instrument 2019’, 2019 <,; [accessed 11 June 2019].

[20] Australian Government.

[21] Migration Western Australia.

[22] Government of Western Australia, ‘Media Statements – State Budget Boost to Secure More International Students to Perth’.

[23] Government of Western Australia, ‘About StudyPerth’, StudyPerth, 2019 <> [accessed 9 June 2019].

[24] Government of Western Australia, ‘About StudyPerth’.

[25] Bob Birrell, ‘Overseas Students Are Driving Australia’s Net Overseas Migration Tide’, The Australian Population Research Institute, 2019 <> [accessed 8 July 2019].

[26] Government of Western Australia, ‘Launch of the WA International Education Strategy 2018-2025’, StudyPerth, 2018 <> [accessed 9 June 2019].

[27] Harriet Spinks, ‘Overseas Students: Immigration Policy Changes 1997–2015’, Parliament of Australia, 2016 <> [accessed 14 July 2019].

[28] Harriet Spinks.

[29] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘International Student Data’, 2019 <> [accessed 16 July 2019].

[30] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘International Student Data’.

[31] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘Finance 2017 Financial Reports of Higher Education Providers’, 2017 <> [accessed 15 July 2019].

[32] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘Finance 2017 Financial Reports of Higher Education Providers’.

[33] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘Finance 2017 Financial Reports of Higher Education Providers’.

[34] Dr Hazel Ferguson and Henry Sherrell, ‘Overseas Students in Australian Higher Education: A Quick Guide’, Parliament of Australia, 2019 <> [accessed 15 July 2019].

[35] Dr Hazel Ferguson and Henry Sherrell.

[36] Harriet Spinks.

[37] Harriet Spinks.

[38] Harriet Spinks.

[39] Harriet Spinks.

[40] Peter Mares, Not Quite Australian: How Temporary Migration Is Changing The Nation (The Text Publishing Company, 22 William Street, Melbourne, Australia, 2016).

[41] Australian Government Department of Home Affairs, ‘Temporary Graduate Visa (Subclass 485) Post-Study Work Stream’, 2019 <> [accessed 24 July 2019].

[42] Australian Government Department of Home Affairs, ‘BR0097 Student Visa and TemporaryGraduate Visa Program Report at 31 December 2018’.

[43] Bob Birrell.

[44] Bob Birrell.

[45] Bob Birrell.

[46] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2018’, 2019 <> [accessed 19 July 2019].

[47] Bob Birrell.

[48] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘3101.0 – Australian Demographic Statistics, Dec 2018’.

[49] Harriet Spinks.

[50] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘International Student Data’.

[51] Australian Bureau of Statistics, ‘6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, Jun 2019’.

[52] Australian Government Productivity Commission, ‘Productivity Commission – Operating Principles and Policy Guidelines’, 2019 <; [accessed 21 July 2019].

[53] Australian Government Productivity Commission, ‘Migrant Intake into Australia – Productivity Commission Inquiry Report’, 2016 <> [accessed 23 February 2019].

[54] Australian Government Productivity Commission, ‘Migrant Intake into Australia – Productivity Commission Inquiry Report’.

[55] Australian Government Productivity Commission, ‘Migrant Intake into Australia – Productivity Commission Inquiry Report’.

[56] Australian Government Productivity Commission, ‘Migrant Intake into Australia – Productivity Commission Inquiry Report’.

[57] Australian Government Productivity Commission, ‘Migrant Intake into Australia – Productivity Commission Inquiry Report’.

[58] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘Data and Research’.

[59] Australian Government Department of Education and Training, ‘Data and Research’.

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